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Springer, Cham

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10.1002/elan.200302795

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Selected Disorders of Nutrition

Authors: Douglas J. Inciarte,

Publish Date: 2015
Volume: , Issue:, Pages: 1-8
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Abstract

Nutrition disorders seen in primary care are common in the daily medical practice, either in the inpatient or outpatient setting. The assessment and management of nutritional disorders are linked to intestinal and liver disorders that interfere with the nutrient metabolism, affecting the overall care of the patient. Malabsorption of nutrients in the human body causes multiple symptoms and signs such as diarrhea, musculoskeletal, neurological, skin, and mucous membrane pathology resulting in weight loss, weakness, malnutrition, and electrolyte abnormalities.Nutrition disorders seen in primary care are common in the daily medical practice, either in the inpatient or outpatient setting. The assessment and management of nutritional disorders are linked to intestinal and liver disorders that interfere with the nutrient metabolism, affecting the overall care of the patient. Malabsorption of nutrients in the human body causes multiple symptoms and signs such as diarrhea, musculoskeletal, neurological, skin, and mucous membrane pathology resulting in weight loss, weakness, malnutrition, and electrolyte abnormalities.Vitamin D deficiency continues to be fairly common in children and adults. Even though Rickets was considered a disease that was essentially eliminated years ago after milk was fortified with vitamin D, we now know that even in utero and during childhood, vitamin D deficiency can cause growth retardation and skeletal deformities.The discovery that most tissues and cells in the body have a vitamin D receptor and that several possess the enzymatic machinery to convert the primary circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, to the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has provided new insights into the function of this vitamin. Of great interest is the role it can play in decreasing the risk of many chronic illnesses, including common cancers, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular disease [1].Solar ultraviolet B radiation (wavelength, 290–315 nm) penetrates the skin and converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3, which is rapidly converted to vitamin D3. Because any excess previtamin D3 or vitamin D3 is destroyed by sunlight, excessive exposure to sunlight does not cause vitamin D3 intoxication.


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