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Title of Journal: Conserv Genet

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Abbravation: Conservation Genetics

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Springer Netherlands

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Population genetic structure and disease in montane boreal toads: more heterozygous individuals are more likely to be infected with amphibian chytrid

Authors: Brett R. Addis, Winsor H. Lowe, Blake R. Hossack, Fred W. Allendorf,

Publish Date: 2015/02/13
Volume: 16, Issue:4, Pages: 833-844
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Amphibians are more threatened than any other vertebrate group, with 41 % of species classified as threatened. The causes of most declines are not well understood, though many declines have been linked to disease. Additionally, amphibians are physiologically constrained to moist habitats and considered poor dispersers; thus, they may suffer genetic consequences of population isolation. To understand threats to the persistence of boreal toads (Bufo boreas) in Glacier National Park, USA, we genotyped 551 individuals at 11 microsatellite loci and used Bayesian clustering methods to describe population genetic structure and identify barriers to gene flow. We found evidence of two primary genetic groups that differed substantially in elevation and two secondary groups within the high elevation group. There was also evidence of further substructure within the southern high elevation group, suggesting mountain ridges are barriers to gene flow at local scales. Overall, genetic variation was high, but allelic richness declined with increasing elevation, reflecting greater isolation or smaller effective population sizes of high altitude populations. We tested for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the fungal pathogen which causes chytridiomycosis, and we found that 35 of 199 toads were positive for Bd. Unexpectedly, more heterozygous individuals were more likely to be infected. This suggests that dispersal facilitates the spread of disease because heterozygosity may be highest where dispersal and gene flow are greatest.We thank Tom Brekke, Kris Crandell, Sara Dykeman, Nate Muhn, Paul Scarr, and numerous field technicians who collected samples between 2008 and 2011. Sally Painter and Steve Amish provided assistance with lab work and genotyping. Marty Kardos provided assistance with randomization tests, and Eric Fuchs provided statistical advice. This manuscript was improved with comments from Mike Schwartz. This research was performed under University of Montana IACUC permit 022-09WLDBS-051209. Partial funding was provided by the Jerry O’Neal student fellowship and the U.S. Geological Survey Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI). This manuscript is ARMI product number 499. Use of trade, product, or firm names does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.



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