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Springer, Singapore

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10.1007/bf01410458

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Fundamentals of Cardiology for the Non-Cardiologist

Authors: Bo Xu, Michael Stokes, Ian Meredith,

Publish Date: 2016
Volume: , Issue:, Pages: 21-44
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Abstract

Awareness of the fundamentals of cardiac anatomy, physiology and various disease states is essential to clinicians managing a patient with cardiac pathology. This chapter summarizes the key aspects of cardiac structure and function, as well as providing an overview of the broad range of cardiac pathology. The chapter discusses the various presentations of cardiac disease and the clinical assessment that is performed. Diseases discussed include those of cardiac rhythm, vessels, valves, and muscle as well as congenital heart disease. The various modalities of investigation and basic principles of management are also reviewed.The spectrum of clinical disorders describing patients presenting with acute or unstable chest pain syndromes due to underlying unstable coronary artery disease. This consists of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and unstable angina (UA). The differentiation between these clinical entities is based on electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and serum biomarker levels.An invasive interventional cardiology technique commonly performed via femoral or radial arterial access, in which the lumen of the coronary arteries is visualized in detail using special contrast and fluoroscopy X-ray equipment. Coronary angiography provides the basis for percutaneous coronary intervention, in which special guidewires, angioplasty balloons, and stents are used to treat significant coronary artery lesions.


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