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Springer, Cham

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10.1007/s11205-006-9046-6

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Facile Green Strategy for Preparation of Advanced Structured Materials Based on Amphiphilic Cardanol

Authors: Ayman M. Atta, Hamad A. Allohedan,

Publish Date: 2017
Volume: , Issue:, Pages: 57-91
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Abstract

Cashew nutshell liquid oil among different renewable resources is one of the agricultural by-products available in tropical countries such as India that is used to produce cardanol as naturally occurring fatty phenols. It has attracted great attention in advanced chemical industries to produce biopolymers, bio-surfactants, bio-composites and nanomaterials. It represents an excellent alternative feedstock for the elaboration of chemicals and polymers. Moreover, cardanol is regarded as a versatile and valuable raw material for wide applications in the form of brake linings, surface coatings, paints and varnishes as well as in polymer production. In this chapter, the possible modifications of cardanol to produce monomeric and polymeric surfactants have been discussed in different reaction schemes. It can be recommended that because of their renewable nature and structural characteristics, cardanol is likely candidates for preparing “green” surfactant species like anionic (sulfonates), non-ionic (ethoxylated and cardanol–formaldehyde ethoxylated polymers) and cationic (quaternary ammonium, pyridinium and imidazolium derivatives) to replace the petroleum based on nonylphenol surfactants. Moreover, it can be used to prepare biopolymer, polymer nanocomposites and semisynthetic processes to prepare derivatives with biological and pharmaceutical applications.


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